Mortality in an Italian nursing home during COVID-19 pandemic: correlation with gender, age, ADL, vitamin D supplementation, and limitations of the diagnostic tests

Biagio Cangiano, Letizia Maria Fatti, Leila Danesi, Giacomo Gazzano, Marina Croci, Giovanni Vitale, Luisa Gilardini, Stefania Bonadonna, Iacopo Chiodini, Chiara Francesca Caparello, Antonio Conti, Luca Persani, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Marco Bonomi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic caused an increased mortality in nursing homes due to its quick spread and the age-related high lethality. Results: We observed a two-month mortality of 40%, compared to 6.4% in the previous year. This increase was seen in both COVID-19 positive (43%) and negative (24%) residents, but 8 patients among those testing negative on the swab, tested positive on serological tests. Increased mortality was associated with male gender, older age, no previous vitamin D supplementation and worse “activities of daily living (ADL)” scores, such as Barthel index, Tinetti scale and S.OS.I.A. classification. Conclusion: Our data confirms a higher geriatric mortality due to COVID-19. Negative residents also had higher mortality, which we suspect is secondary to preanalytical error and a low sensitivity of the swab test in poorly compliant subjects. Male gender, older age and low scores on ADL scales (probably due to immobility) are risk factors for COVID-19 related mortality. Finally, mortality was inversely associated with vitamin D supplementation. Design: In this observational study, we described the two-month mortality among the 157 residents (age 60-100) of a nursing home after Sars-CoV-2 spreading, reporting the factors associated with the outcome. We also compared the diagnostic tests for Sars-CoV-2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24522-24534
Number of pages13
JournalAging
Volume12
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 31 2020

Keywords

  • activities of daily living
  • COVID-19
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • nasopharyngeal swab
  • sensitivity and specificity
  • serology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Cell Biology

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