Movement disorders in ADAR1 disease: Insights from a comprehensive cohort

Giulia Di Lazzaro, Federica Graziola, Andrea Sancesario, Antonella Insalaco, Gian Marco Moneta, Enrico Castelli, Enrico Bertini, Lorena Travaglini, Fabrizia Stregapede, Alessandro Capuano, Gessica Vasco, Tommaso Schirinzi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


ADAR1 variants are associated to rare and heterogenous neurological conditions, including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome type 6, bilateral striatal necrosis, and dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Movement disorders (MDs) commonly occur in ADAR1-related diseases although a complete overview on the phenomenology has not been provided yet. Here, a cohort of 57 patients with ADAR1-related diseases, including 3 unpublished patients and 54 previously reported cases, was reviewed. Data on demographics, clinical features of MDs, genetics and biomarkers were collected and descriptive statistics, group analysis for genotype and logistic regression were run. Manifestations of MD characterized the onset of ADAR1-related disease in 60% of patients. Specifically, dystonia occurred in 39% of cases, even as severe status dystonicus, while prevalence of other MDs was lower. Patients often presented brain lesions (>90%) and progressive disease course (43%), fatal in some cases. Clinical presentation and outcome differed among patients with distinct genotype. This review shows that phenomenology of MDs in ADAR1-related diseases is wide and heterogeneous, although a severe motor syndrome (often characterized by dystonia) secondary to brain lesions represents the most common manifestation. Waiting for future development of disease-modifying treatments, an appropriate symptomatic intervention is crucial for ADAR1 patients. Accordingly, a deeper knowledge of phenomenology is fundamental.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-104
Number of pages5
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020


  • ADAR1
  • Aicardi-Goutiéres syndrome
  • Dystonia
  • Infantile parkinsonism
  • Movement disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Neurology


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