MRI-based radiomics signature for localized prostate cancer: a new clinical tool for cancer aggressiveness prediction? Sub-study of prospective phase II trial on ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy (AIRC IG-13218)

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Abstract

Objectives: Radiomic involves testing the associations of a large number of quantitative imaging features with clinical characteristics. Our aim was to extract a radiomic signature from axial T2-weighted (T2-W) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the whole prostate able to predict oncological and radiological scores in prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: This study included 65 patients with localized PCa treated with radiotherapy (RT) between 2014 and 2018. For each patient, the T2-W MRI images were normalized with the histogram intensity scale standardization method. Features were extracted with the IBEX software. The association of each radiomic feature with risk class, T-stage, Gleason score (GS), extracapsular extension (ECE) score, and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) score was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Forty-nine out of 65 patients were eligible. Among the 1702 features extracted, 3 to 6 features with the highest predictive power were selected for each outcome. This analysis showed that texture features were the most predictive for GS, PI-RADS v2 score, and risk class; intensity features were highly associated with T-stage, ECE score, and risk class, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) ranging from 0.74 to 0.94. Conclusions: MRI-based radiomics is a promising tool for prediction of PCa characteristics. Although a significant association was found between the selected features and all the mentioned clinical/radiological scores, further validations on larger cohorts are needed before these findings can be applied in the clinical practice. Key Points: • A radiomic model was used to classify PCa aggressiveness. • Radiomic analysis was performed on T2-W magnetic resonance images of the whole prostate gland. • The most predictive features belong to the texture (57%) and intensity (43%) domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)716-728
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Radiology
Volume31
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Classification
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Prostatic neoplasms
  • Radiomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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