PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether MRI findings together with epidemiological data could help in differentiating between tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis.
METHODS: Clinical records of 260 patients with a suspicion of spondylodiscitis were analysed. Patients were selected using the following inclusion criteria: confirmed diagnosis of spondylodiscitis either from pyogenic bacteria or from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and contrast-enhanced MRI performed before treatment. Clinical data concerning age, sex and country-of-origin were also collected. For each patient, several MRI-features were evaluated by two-expert musculoskeletal radiologists. A chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression were used to find the best predictors of tuberculous or pyogenic spondylodiscitis.
RESULTS: 114 patients were retrospectively enrolled, 30 with tuberculous and 84 with pyogenic spondylodiscitis. We found 18 MRI-features, significantly different between the two groups. Among these, the most strongly associated with tuberculous spondylodiscitis were: heterogeneous vertebral signal on T1w-sequences (Odds Ratio(OR) = 205.759-p < 0.001), presence of epidural abscess (OR = 86.221-p < 0.001), severe vertebral destruction (OR = 10.017-p < 0.001) and absence of epidural phlegmon (OR = 86.221-p < 0.001). Moreover, patients coming from countries with a middle-high prevalence of tuberculosis were more frequently affected by tuberculous spondylodiscitis than others were (OR = 229.136-p < 0.001). The best prediction model demonstrated a correct classification rate of 94.7%.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge this is the largest study comparing MRI-features of tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis. The above-mentioned MRI-features and epidemiological data are crucial in the differential diagnosis between these two entities, guiding the choice of the appropriate therapy, especially when a pathogen cannot be clearly identified with other modalities.