Objectives. It has been reported that all children with febrile urinary tract infections (FUTIs) and normal voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) findings show occult reflux (vesicoureteral reflux [VUR]) when examined by cystography performed with positioning of the instillation of contrast at the ureteral orifice (PIC cystography). In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility of this finding using a prospective multi-institutional collaborative examination to determine whether PIC-VUR is as common in such cases as previously shown. Methods. From March 2002 to October 2003, four institutions performed PIC cystography consecutively and prospectively in pediatric cases of FUTI (greater than 101°F) who had not shown VUR by conventional VCUG. We correlated the ureteral orifice (UO) configuration and position with the status of PIC-VUR. Results. PIC cystography was performed in 39 children (31 girls and 8 boys; 75 FUTIs). We identified PIC-VUR in 32 (82%) of 39 children, involving 58 (74%) of 78 ureters. The likelihood of demonstrating PIC-VUR was increased 37-fold if the UO showed a patulous configuration and was increased 9-fold if the UO showed a lateral configuration. PIC-VUR was noted uniformly in UOs showing hydrodistension. Conclusions. This multi-institutional registry showed that the incidence of PIC-VUR (82%) in children with FUTI and normal standard VCUG findings is similar to that previously reported. We consider that PIC-VUR likely accounts for the FUTIs.
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