Multi-sensor approach for the monitoring of halitosis treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)—containing lozenges—a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

Enrico Marchetti, Simona Tecco, Marco Santonico, Chiara Vernile, Daniele Ciciarelli, Ester Tarantino, Giuseppe Marzo, Giorgio Pennazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate whether a recently described multi-sensor approach called BIONOTE® is accurate enough to verify the efficacy of treatment of patients with halitosis. A treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)–containing lozenges, compared with placebo was tested. The BIONOTE® was compared with traditional techniques used to detect halitosis: OralChroma™ and two calibrated odor judges enrolled for the organoleptic assessments. Twenty patients (10 treated and 10 placebo), suffering from active phase halitosis were included in the study. Treatment consisted of Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)—containing lozenges or placebo, 4 tablets/day for 14 days. t0 was before the beginning of the study; t1 was day 7 and t2 was day 14. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed through: (1) Rosenberg score; (2) Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI) anterior and posterior; (2) OralChroma™; (3) the new developed multi-sensor approach, called BIONOTE® (test technique). Only the WTCI anterior revealed statistically significant changes between t0 and t2 data (p = 0.014) in the treated group. Except for the WTCI anterior, all diagnostic methods revealed the lack of effectiveness for halitosis of a 14-days treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)–containing lozenges. The BIONOTE® multisensor system seems accurate in addition to OralChroma™ to assess the initial condition of halitosis and its mitigation during treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19583-19596
Number of pages14
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 10 2015

Keywords

  • Bad breath
  • Chemical sensors
  • Electronic nose
  • Halitosis
  • Probiotics
  • Sensor array

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry

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