Purpose: Endoscopic subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) injection has been used successfully to treat primary and secondary vesicoureteral reflux in children. We review the results of subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene injection in terms of its effectiveness, long-term followup and morbidity. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 pediatric urologists and/or pediatric surgeons at 41 centers worldwide answered an inquiry regarding experience with subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene injection in vesicoureteral reflux. Data were collected from a completed standard questionnaire. From 1984 to 1996, 1,921 boys and 6,411 girls with a mean age of 4.5 years (12,251 refluxing ureters) were treated endoscopically with subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene injection. Reflux was grades I to V in 407 (3.3%), 3,832 (31.2%), 5,213 (42.5%), 2,218 (18.1%) and 581 (4.7%) ureters, respectively. In the majority of patients subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene injection was performed on an outpatient basis. Most urologists monitored patients with voiding cystourethrography and renal ultrasound at 3 months, 1 year and 3 years. All patients were followed 1 to 13 years. Results: Reflux resolved in 9,226 ureters (75.3%) after 1 polytetrafluoroethylene injection, in 1,478 (12%) after 2 and in 250 (2%) after 3 or 4. Vesicoureteral reflux improved to grade I after 1 or 2 injections in 743 (6%) ureters, which needed no further treatment. Subureteral injection failed to correct reflux in 554 ureters (4.5%), which were then treated with ureteral reimplantation. Vesicoureteral junction obstruction requiring ureteral reimplantation developed in 41 ureters (0.33%). More than 90% of patients have been followed for more than 2 years. At followup reflux recurred in 326 (2.8%) endoscopically corrected refluxing ureters. No clinically untoward effects were reported in any patient due to the use of polytetrafluoroethylene as an injectable material. Conclusions: The results of this multicenter survey confirm that endoscopic subureteral polytetrafluoroethylene injection is a simple, safe and effective outpatient procedure for treating all grades of vesicoureteral reflux.
- Vesico-ureteral reflux
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