Multidimensional Approach to Frailty

Marta Wleklik, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Ewa A. Jankowska, Cristiana Vitale, Magdalena Lisiak, Marcin Drozd, Piotr Pobrotyn, Michał Tkaczyszyn, Christopher Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The concept of frailty syndrome (FS) was first described in the scientific literature three decades ago. For a very long time, we understood it as a geriatric problem, recently becoming one of the dominant concepts in cardiology. It identifies symptoms of FS in one in 10 elderly people. It is estimated that in Europe, 17% of elderly people have FS. The changes in FS resemble and often overlap with changes associated with the physiological aging process of the body. Although there are numerous scientific reports confirming that FS is age correlated, it is not an unavoidable part of the aging process and does not apply only to the elderly. FS is a reversible clinical condition. To maximize benefits of frailty-reversing activities for patient with frailty, identification of its determinants appears to be fundamental. Many of the determinants of the FS have already been known: reduction in physical activity, malnutrition, sarcopenia, polypharmacy, depressive symptom, cognitive disorders, and lack of social support. This review shows that insight into FS determinants is the starting point for building both the comprehensive definition of FS and the adoption of the assessment method of FS, and then successful clinical management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number564
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 25 2020


  • cardiology
  • determinants
  • disability
  • elderly
  • frailty syndrome
  • multi-morbidity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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