NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a provisional entity in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms. The significance of multilineage dysplasia (MLD) in NPM1-mutated AML is unclear. Thus, in the 2008 WHO classification, NPM1-mutated AML with MLD is classified as AML with myelodysplasia (MD)-related changes (MRCs). We evaluated morphologically 318 NPM1-mutated AML patients and found MLD in 23.3%. Except for a male predominance and a lower fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) incidence in the MLD+ group, no differences were observed in age, sex, cytogenetics, and FLT3 - tyrosine kinase domain between NPM1-mutated AML with and without MLD. NPM1-mutated AML with and without MLD showed overlapping immunophenotype (CD34 negativity) and gene expression profile (CD34 down-regulation, HOX genes up-regulation). Moreover, overall and event-free survival did not differ among NPM1-mutated AML patients independently of whether they were MLD+ or MLD-, the NPM1-mutated/FLT3-ITD negative genotype showing the better prognosis. Lack of MLD impact on survival was confirmed by multivariate analysis that highlighted FLT3-ITD as the only significant prognostic parameter in NPM1-mutated AML. Our findings indicate that NPM1 mutations rather than MLD dictate the distinctive features of NPM1-mutated AML. Thus, irrespective of MLD, NPM1-mutated AML represents one disease entity clearly distinct from AML with MRCs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology