Multimodal imaging characterization of peripheral drusen: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology

E. Corbelli, E. Borrelli, M. Parravano, R. Sacconi, M. Gilardi, E. Costanzo, M. Cavalleri, L. Querques, F. Bandello, G. Querques

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To provide an integrate multimodal imaging characterization of peripheral drusen in the eyes with and without macular signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to analyze their association with macular findings. Methods: In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, subjects with peripheral drusen were imaged with the Optos (Optos PLC, Dunfermline, Scotland, UK) and Spectralis devices to obtain referenced spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. Two experienced graders independently graded the ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images for the presence of peripheral drusen and analyzed peripheral druse features using OCT. Main outcome measures included quantitative and qualitative assessment of peripheral drusen. Results: Fifty-seven eyes (30 subjects) were included in the analysis. Mean ± SD age was 77.6 ± 9.2 years (range 54–97 years). On pseudocolor images, graders identified the presence of drusen in all the enrolled eyes (Cohen’s kappa was 1.0). On FAF images, Cohen’s kappa was 0.71. In the topographical assessment, peripheral drusen were detected in 23 cases in the temporal region, in 40 cases in the nasal region, in 40 cases in the inferior region, and in 42 cases in the superior region. On SD-OCT images, peripheral drusen had a high reflective core in 97.1% of cases, while remaining drusen were characterized by a low reflective core. The macula was affected by early/intermediate AMD in 23 eyes (43.5%) and late AMD in 6 eyes (10.5%). Conclusions: We provided an integrate multimodal imaging assessment of peripheral drusen in the eyes with and without AMD. Peripheral drusen were characterized by distinguished features that may suggest that these lesions constitute a distinct disease, rather than representing an expansion of AMD. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543-549
Number of pages7
JournalGraefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Drusen
  • Multimodal imaging
  • Peripheral retina
  • Ultra-widefield
  • adult
  • age related macular degeneration
  • aged
  • Article
  • autofluorescence imaging
  • B scan
  • clinical feature
  • cross-sectional study
  • disease association
  • drusen
  • epiretinal membrane
  • female
  • geographic atrophy
  • human
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • middle aged
  • multimodal imaging
  • nose
  • ophthalmoscopy
  • outcome assessment
  • pilot study
  • priority journal
  • reticular pseudodrusen
  • retina disease
  • retina macula lutea
  • retrospective study
  • spectral domain optical coherence tomography
  • temporal lobe
  • clinical trial
  • eye fundus
  • fluorescence angiography
  • multicenter study
  • optical coherence tomography
  • pathology
  • procedures
  • reproducibility
  • retina
  • very elderly
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multimodal Imaging
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Retina
  • Retinal Drusen
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence


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