Purpose: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), caused by a mutation in the APC gene, is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome associated with several other clinical conditions. The severity of the FAP is related to the position of the inherited mutation in the APC gene. We analyzed a large series of FAP patients to identify associations among major clinical manifestations and to correlate the mutation site with specific disease manifestations. Materials and Methods: APC mutations were identified in 953 FAP patients from 187 families. We used unconditional logistic regression models and a method involving generalized estimating equations to investigate the association between genotype and phenotype. We used multiple correspondence analysis to represent the interrelationships of a multiway contingency table of the considered variables. Results: APC germline mutations were located between codons 156 and 2011 of the APC gene. Mutations spanning the region between codons 543 and 1309 were variable, but strongly associated with congenital hypertrophy of retinal pigment epithelium. Mutations between codons 1310 and 2011 were associated with a six-fold risk of desmoid tumors relative to the low-risk reference region (159 to 495). Mutations at codon 1309 were associated with early development of colorectal cancer. Mutations between codons 976 and 1067 were associated with a three- to four-fold increased risk of duodenal adenomas. The cumulative frequency of extracolonic manifestations was highest for mutations between codons 976 and 1067, followed by mutations between 1310 and 2011. Conclusion: Analysis of the relation between APC mutation site and phenotype identifies subgroups of FAP patients at high risk for major extracolonic disease, which is useful for surveillance and prevention.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research