Multiple correspondence analysis in S-PLUS

Federico Ambrogi, Elia Biganzoli, Patrizia Boracchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) is a multivariate method for analyzing multidimensional contingency tables. General software procedures to perform MCA are available. Among them SAS Proc CORRESP, SPAD CORMU procedure and the mca function of the MASS library in S-PLUS are probably the most used. However, CORRESP and CORMU output is different from that of mca function. The aim of this short note is showing how to obtain from mca function results compatible with those achieved with SAS or SPAD. A modified code is proposed in order to obtain the same coordinate system computed by SAS and SPAD. Moreover, the computation of the contributions of the levels of the factors to the inertia explained by each axis, the squared cosine of each factor level and the re-evaluation of the inertia explained by each axis have been added in order to improve the interpretations of the results of the decomposition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-167
Number of pages7
JournalComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005


  • Generalized singular value decomposition
  • Multiple correspondence analysis
  • S-PLUS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software


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