Multiple effects of high mobility group box protein 1 in skeletal muscle regeneration

Roberta De Mori, Stefania Straino, Anna Di Carlo, Antonella Mangoni, Giulio Pompilio, Roberta Palumbo, Marco E. Bianchi, Maurizio C. Capogrossi, Antonia Germani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OBJECTIVE - High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a cytokine released by necrotic and inflammatory cells in response to injury. We examined the role of HMGB1 in skeletal muscle regeneration after hindlimb ischemia. METHODS AND RESULTS - Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in mice by femoral artery dissection. HMGB1 levels increased in regenerating skeletal muscle and the blockade of endogenous HMGB1 by the administration of its truncated form, the BoxA, resulted in the reduction of vessel density. In contrast, intramuscular administration of HMGB1 enhanced perfusion and increased the number of regenerating fibers. To separately study the myogenic and the angiogenic effects of HMGB1, in vitro experiments were performed with isolated myoblasts and endothelial cells. Myoblasts were found to express the HMGB1 receptor RAGE and TLR4 which were downregulated during in vitro myogenic differentiation. HMGB1 was extracellularly released by differentiated myoblasts and exerted a chemotactic activity on myogenic cells. This effect was partially dependent on RAGE and was inhibited by BoxA treatment. Finally, HMGB1 stimulated tubular-like structure formation by endothelial cells through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and JNK signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS - HMGB1 plays a role in skeletal muscle regeneration modulating, in an autocrine-paracrine manner, myoblast and endothelial cell functions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2377-2383
Number of pages7
JournalArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2007


  • Cytokines
  • Hindlimb ischemia
  • HMGB1
  • Regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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