Multiple Sclerosis and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Maira Gironi, Caterina Arnò, Giancarlo Comi, Giselle Penton-Rol, Roberto Furlan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease in which axonal loss is the major cause of irreversible neurological disability. Neurological deficits in MS patients are related to inflammatory demyelination and axonal degeneration. Axonal transection occurs at sites of inflammation and begins at disease onset but is clinically silent because the central nervous system (CNS) compensates for neuronal loss. Neuronal injury in the course of chronic neuroinflammation is a key factor in determining long-term disability in patients. Viewing MS as an autoimmune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative disease has major implications for therapy, and CNS protection and repair is needed in addition to controlling inflammation. The availability of novel tools in molecular neurogenetics and increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies, together with the revitalization of MS neuropathology research, has created a new paradigm for the multidisciplinary study of this disease. This chapter summarizes epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic tools, and current therapies for MS and other important neurodegenerative diseases such as neuromyelitis optica.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationImmune Rebalancing: The Future of Immunosuppression
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9780128033029
Publication statusPublished - Jan 22 2016


  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunotherapies
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Neuromyelitis optica

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

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