Ganglioneuroma is a rare benign tumor originating from autonomic ganglia and is considered the benign counterpart of neuroblastoma. Ganglioneuromas may be present as an isolated finding and, rarely, in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, ganglioneuromas of the cervical spine with intradural extension and multiple locations are extremely rare. We describe a 32-year-old woman with multiple ganglioneuromas of the cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine associated with a few café-au-lait spots and subcutaneous nodules. The patient lacked other NF1 stigmata, such as freckling, Lisch nodules and cutaneous neurofibromas. Although our patient did not fulfill the NF1 diagnostic criteria, molecular diagnosis revealed a pathogenic mutation in the NF1 gene. Approximately 30 patients affected by NF1 and ganglioneuromas have been reported: in all these individuals, NF1 diagnosis was made according to the clinical diagnostic criteria and no patients have molecular diagnosis. Therefore, this is the first case with multiple spinal ganglioneuromas associated with a pathogenic NF1 mutation.
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