Assessment of the host immune response pattern is of increasing importance as highly prognostic and diagnostic, in immune-related diseases and in some types of cancer. Chronic inflammation is a major hallmark in colon cancer formation, but, despite the extent of local inflammatory infiltrate has been demonstrated to be extremely informative, its evaluation is not routinely assessed due to the complexity and limitations of classical immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the last years, technological advance helped in bypassing technical limits, setting up multiplex IHC (mIHC) based on tyramide signal amplification (TSA) method and designing software suited to aid pathologists in cell scoring analysis. Several studies verified the efficacy of this method, but they were restricted to the analysis of human samples. In the era of translational medicine the use of animal models to depict human pathologies, in a more complete and complex approach, is really crucial. Nevertheless, the optimization and validation of this method to species other than human is still poor. We took advantage of Multispectral Imaging System to identify the immunoprofile of Dextran Sulphate Sodium (DSS)-treated mouse colon. We optimized a protocol to sequentially stain formalin fixed paraffin embedded murine colon samples for CD3, CD8a, CD4, and CD4R5B0 antigens. With this approach we obtained a detailed lymphocyte profile, while preserving the morphological tissue context, generally lost with techniques like gene expression profiling or flow cytometry. This study, comparing the results obtained by mIHC with immunophenotyping performed with cytofluorimetric and standard IHC methods validates the potentiality and the applicability of this innovative approach.
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