Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire: Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Italian version (MSK-HQ-I)

G. Galeoto, V. Piepoli, E. Ciccone, R. Mollica, C. Federici, F. Magnifica, A. Servadio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Skeletal muscle disorder refers to a pathological condition and/or pathology, (e.g. osteoarthritis, inflammatory disorders, and muscular, articular or bone disorders) that involve all the skeletal muscle districts of the body. Musculoskeletal pain (MSD or MSK) is the biggest cause of disability. Objective: The purpose of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate an Italian version of the Musculoskeletal Health Questionnaire (MSK-HQ-I) by administering the questionnaire to a sample of 250 individuals with musculoskeletal disorders through a cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants enrolled in this study were those aged 18 and older with pathological diagnoses reporting skeletal muscle disorders. International guidelines were used to translate and culturally adapt the MSK-HQ-I tool. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scale have been evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), respectively. To assess concurrent and construct validity, the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12), the EuroQol five-dimension (EQ-5D-3L), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the MSK-HQ-I were administered together. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient was also calculated. Results: All the MSK-HQ-I items were identical or similar to the original English version of the MSK-HQ developed in the United Kingdom. The mean MSK-HQ-I score in this study was 37.39±9.35. Cronbach’s α was 0.871 (p < 0.01) and ICC was 0.963 (p < 0.01). The correlation with the SF-12 mental score was 0.319 (p < 0.01) and with the SF-12 physical score was 0.703 (p < 0.01). The correlation with the EQ-5D-3L score was 0.674. The correlation with the EQ-5D-3L VAS score was 0.537. Finally, the correlation with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was -0,656 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The MSK-HQ-I has shown consistent results for reliability and validity. The scale will be useful for medical doctors, researchers and physiotherapists to evaluate and control musculoskeletal disorders among the Italian population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-303
Number of pages9
JournalMuscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2019


  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Reliability
  • Validation studies
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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