Musculoskeletal manifestations are the most common extra-intestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are part of the clinical spectrum of spondylarthropathies and include different articular manifestations. In addition to axial symptoms, peripheral findings such as seronegative oligoarthritis, dactylitis, and enthesopathy commonly occur, sometimes representing the only manifestation. Wide ranges of prevalence have been reported, depending on the criteria used to define spondyloarthropathy and on the selection of patients. In an inceptional cohort of newly diagnosed IBD patients, we observed musculoskeletal manifestations in 30.7% of the patients. The clinician should, therefore, carefully evaluate any rheumatological findings in order to provide an accurate and early diagnosis, and to establish an adequate therapy. In this article, epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects are discussed. Furthermore, the contribution of intestinal bacteria and immunogenetic factors to the pathogenesis of arthritis is briefly reviewed. Finally, we summarize the available therapeutic options. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
- ESSG criteria
- Extraintestinal manifestations
- Inflammatory bowel disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine