We have investigated whether by introducing a mutated p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor through a standard type 5 adenovirus (Ad), it would be possible to interfere with restenosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Restenosis is a clinically relevant, undesired effect of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A critical event underlying restenosis is smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation leading to neointimal formation and vessel reocclusion. Recent data demonstrated that it is possible to reduce restenosis by introducing various genes blocking the cell cycle through Ad vectors. Nonetheless, most experiments were conducted in the healthy carotid artery of rat, which is far from the condition of human disease. Therefore, we investigated whether antiproliferative or proapoptotic genes affect restenosis in a model of atherosclerosis closer to clinical settings. Ad-mutated(m)-p21WAF/CIP1 transgene overexpression induces a significant reduction of restenosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice subjected to injury of common carotid artery. This was associated with reduced SMC density and proliferation, macrophage deposition, and oxidation-sensitive mechanisms. Treatment with p21/WAF also enhanced TUNEL positivity of arterial cells. We show that in an experimental model of atherosclerosis, braking the cell proliferation through increased vascular apoptosis and reduced oxidation-sensitive signal transduction and macrophage accumulation can significantly ameliorate the deleterious effects of vascular injuries similar to those that occur during PTCA and related procedures.
- Apo E knock-out
- Cell cycle
- Gene therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Cell Biology