Simple Summary Malignant pleura Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer arising from the mesothelial cells of the pleura. About 80 the remainder may be related to prior chest radiation, genetic predisposition or spontaneous occurrence. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive MPM is critical for successful development of diagnostics, prognostics and personalized therapeutic modalities. Because MPM is rare, genomic studies are limited and have typically involved a small number of samples. The aim of our study was to understand the mutational landscape of MPM. Our analysis identified significantly mutated genes. This study on a rare tumor type will be important for patients ``in real life''. Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer. Data are not available in prospective trials on correlations between genetic alterations and outcomes of therapies. In this study, we assessed the genetic profile of MPM patients (pts) in tissue samples. Patients and Methods: From December 2016 to July 2018 (end of enrolment), 164 pts were enrolled. We evaluated by targeted sequencing the mutational profile of a panel of 34 genes: ACTB, ACTG1, ACTG2, ACTR1A, BAP1, CDH8, CDK4, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, COL3A1, COL5A2, CUL1, DHFR, GOT1, KDR, KIT, MXRA5, NF2, NFRKB, NKX6-2, NOD2, PCBD2, PDZK1IP1, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PSMD13, RAPGEF6, RDX, SETDB1, TAOK1, TP53, TXNRD1, UQCRC1, XRCC6. Genetic profiling was correlated with clinical and pathological variables. Results: Overall, 110 pts (67 from both treatment arms had samples available for molecular analysis. Median age was 63 years (45-81), 25.5n = 28) were females, and 74.5n = 82) were males. Tumor histotype was 81.8n = 90) epithelioid and 18.2n = 20) non-epithelioid; 28.5n = 42) were stage IV, 71.5n = 68) were stage III. Targeted sequencing of tissue specimens identified 275 functional somatic mutations in the 34 genes analyzed. The number of mutated genes was positively associated with higher stage and metastatic disease (p = 0.025). RDX (42, MXRA5 (23, BAP1 (14, and NF2 (11 were the most frequently mutated genes. Mutations in RAPGEF6 (p = 0.03) and ACTG1 (p = 0.02) were associated with the non-epithelioid subtype, and mutations in BAP1 (p = 0.04) were related to progression-free survival (PFS) > 6 months. Conclusions: In the Ramucirumab Mesothelioma clinical trial (RAMES), mutation of the gene BAP1 is related to a prolonged PFS for patients treated with platinum/pemetrexed regimens (p = 0.04).