The MYH9 gene encodes the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin IIA, a widely expressed cytoplasmic myosin that participates in a variety of processes requiring the generation of intracellular chemomechanical force and translocation of the actin cytoskeleton. Non-muscle myosin IIA functions are regulated by phosphorylation of its 20 kDa light chain, of the heavy chain, and by interactions with other proteins. Variants of MYH9 cause an autosomal-dominant disorder, termed MYH9-related disease, and may be involved in other conditions, such as chronic kidney disease, non-syndromic deafness, and cancer. This review discusses the structure of the MYH9 gene and its protein, as well as the regulation and physiologic functions of non-muscle myosin IIA with particular reference to embryonic development. Moreover, the review focuses on current knowledge about the role of MYH9 variants in human disease.
- Cell Line
- Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics
- Molecular Motor Proteins/chemistry
- Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry
- Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA/chemistry
- Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics