The study examined rapid automatized naming (RAN) in 42 children with reading disabilities and 101 control children - all native speakers of Italian, a language with shallow orthography. Third-, 5th- and 6th-grade children were given a RAN test that required rapid naming of color, object, or digit matrices. A visual search test using the same stimulus material (but not requiring a verbal response) and an oral articulation test were also given. Readers with disabilities performed worse than controls on the RAN test. This effect was larger in higher grades than in lower ones. Readers with disabilities were also slower than controls in performing the visual search test. The pattern of results for the RAN test held constant when the visual search performance was partialed out by covariance analysis, indicating the independence of the 2 deficits. The 2 groups did not differ for articulation rate. Finally, analysis of the pattern of intercorrelations indicated that reading speed was most clearly related to RAN, particularly in the group with reading disabilities. The results extend observations of RAN effects on reading deficits to Italian, an orthographically shallow language.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology