In June 2013, the European Medicine Agency recommended limiting codeine use in paediatric patients, creating a void in managing moderate pain. We reviewed the literature published in English (1985-June 2017) on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and safety profile of ketorolac, a possible substitute for codeine and opioids, for treating moderate-to-severe pain. We found that gastrointestinal side effects were mainly reported with prolonged use, significant bleeding was reported in adenotonsillectomy, and adverse renal effects appeared to be limited to patients with specific coexisting risk factors.
CONCLUSION: The short-term use of ketorolac appears to be safe for children in many situations.
|Journal||Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - Dec 16 2017|