Nasal administration of glucagon and human calcitonin to healthy subjects: a comparison of powders and spray solutions and of different enhancing agents

A. E. Pontiroli, M. Alberetto, A. Calderara, E. Pajetta, G. Pozza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The systemic availability of glucagon and human calcitonin given intranasally to healthy volunteers as spray solutions or powders has been examined. Glucagon was absorbed only when surfactants were used, and 9-lauryl ether (as a spray) and sodium glycocholate (as spray or powder) were equally active. Calcitonin was poorly absorbed when given alone but the surfactants dihydrofusinate (as spray or powder) and glycocholate (as a spray) were equally active in promoting absorption. Thus, enhancers are required to obtain significant nasal absorption of glucagon and calcitonin and powders and spray solutions did not differ in terms of systemic availability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)427-430
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1989



  • 9-lauryl ether
  • adverse effects
  • availability
  • calcitonin
  • dihydrofusinate
  • glucagon
  • nasal application
  • powders
  • sodium glycocholate
  • spray solution
  • surfactants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this