Nasu-Hakola disease: A rare entity in Italy. Critical review of the literature

Lorenza Montalbetti, Debora Soragna, Maria Teresa Ratti, Paola Bini, Simona Buscone, Arrigo Moglia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD, polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy, PLOSL) is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by systemic bone cysts and progressive presenile dementia associated with sclerosing encephalopathy. The disease has a worldwide distribution, but most patients have been reported in Finland and in Japan; in Italy there are anecdotal reports. The combination of neuropsychiatric symptoms and bone cysts is unique to this disease, which we believe to be underestimated in Italy. The molecular defect has been identified in loss-of-function mutations in the TYROBP gene in Finnish and in Japanese patients, and in the TREM2 gene in other families of different ethnic origins. We reviewed the international literature to define better the diagnostic steps and to draw the attention of neurologists and orthopaedic specialists to the disease. The identification of new cases followed by appropriate genetic counselling, genetic analysis, and study of the territorial distribution of affected patients could be a good strategy to follow in order to improve understanding of the disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-179
Number of pages9
JournalFunctional Neurology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2004


  • Italy
  • Nasu-Hakola disease
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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