Nested incremental modeling in the development of computational theories: The CDP+ model of reading aloud.

Conrad Perry, Johannes C. Ziegler, Marco Zorzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


At least 3 different types of computational model have been shown to account for various facets of both normal and impaired single word reading: (a) the connectionist triangle model, (b) the dual-route cascaded model, and (c) the connectionist dual process model. Major strengths and weaknesses of these models are identified. In the spirit of nested incremental modeling, a new connectionist dual process model (the CDP+ model) is presented. This model builds on the strengths of 2 of the previous models while eliminating their weaknesses. Contrary to the dual-route cascaded model, CDP+ is able to learn and produce graded consistency effects. Contrary to the triangle and the connectionist dual process models, CDP+ accounts for serial effects and has more accurate nonword reading performance. CDP+ also beats all previous models by an order of magnitude when predicting individual item-level variance on large databases. Thus, the authors show that building on existing theories by combining the best features of previous models - a nested modeling strategy that is commonly used in other areas of science but often neglected in psychology - results in better and more powerful computational models. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-315
Number of pages43
JournalPsychological Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007


  • Connectionist models
  • Dual-route cascaded model
  • Naming
  • Reading
  • Word recognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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