Important complications of diabetes mellitus in the nervous system are represented by diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy. In this context, an important link is represented by neuroactive steroids (i.e., steroids coming from peripheral glands and affecting nervous functionality as well as directly synthesized in the nervous system). Indeed, diabetes does not only affect the reproductive axis and consequently the levels of sex steroid hormones, but also those of neuroactive steroids. Indeed, as will be here summarized, the levels of these neuromodulators present in the central and peripheral nervous system are affected by the pathology in a sex-dimorphic way. In addition, some of these neuroactive steroids, such as the metabolites of progesterone or testosterone, as well as pharmacological tools able to increase their levels have been demonstrated, in experimental models, to be promising protective agents against diabetic peripheral neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy. © 2017.