Neuroimaging advances in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: A systematic review

Komal Bharti, Antonio Suppa, Silvia Tommasin, Alessandro Zampogna, Sara Pietracupa, Alfredo Berardelli, Patrizia Pantano

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Freezing of gait (FOG) is a paroxysmal gait disorder that often occurs at advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). FOG consists of abrupt walking interruption and severe difficulty in locomotion with an increased risk of falling. Pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning FOG in PD are still unclear. However, advanced MRI and nuclear medicine studies have gained relevant insights into the pathophysiology of FOG in PD. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions in PD patients with FOG. In this paper, we systematically review existing neuroimaging literature on the structural and functional brain changes described in PD patients with FOG, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We evaluate previous studies using various MRI techniques to estimate grey matter loss and white matter degeneration. Moreover, we review functional brain changes by examining functional MRI and nuclear medicine imaging studies. The current review provides up-to-date knowledge in this field and summarizes the possible mechanisms responsible for FOG in PD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102059
JournalNeuroImage: Clinical
Publication statusPublished - 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'Neuroimaging advances in Parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: A systematic review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this