Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and for events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and chronic kidney disease and is a major determinant of disability-adjusted life-years. Despite the importance of hypertension, the pathogenesis of essential hypertension, which involves the complex interaction of several mechanisms, is still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that interplay between bone marrow, microglia and immune mediators underlies the development of arterial hypertension, in particular through mechanisms involving cytokines and peptides, such as neuropeptide Y, substance P, angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1–7). Chronic psychological stress also seems to have a role in increasing the risk of hypertension, probably through the activation of neuroimmune pathways. In this Review, we summarize the available data on the possible role of neuroimmune crosstalk in the origin and maintenance of arterial hypertension and discuss the implications of this crosstalk for recovery and rehabilitation after cardiac and cerebral injuries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine