The immune system in conjunction with the neuroendocrine circuit form the 'immune-neuroendocrine suprasystem,' which is able to integrate immunity, stress response, and inflammation. This network is conserved in invertebrates and vertebrates, and a pool of well-known molecules (pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides, cytokines, biogenic amines, glucocorticoids, and nitric oxide) act as information mediators. The macrophage is the principal actor in regulating and integrating responses in this complex system. In this article, we discuss the evolution of the immune-neuroendocrine system, the principal age-related modifications, and the association with important inflammatory-based disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, major depression, frailty, as well as other age-related pathologies.
- Age-related disease
- Immune-neuroendocrine system immunosenescence
- Stress response
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