(±)-3-Hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d] -isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (HIP-A) and (±)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a- tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]isoxazole-6-carboxylic acid (HIP-B) are selective inhibitors of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), as potent as DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA). We report here that the active isomers are (-)-HIP-A and (+)-HIP-B, being approximately 150- and 10-fold more potent than the corresponding enantiomers as inhibitors of [3H] aspartate uptake in rat brain synaptosomes and hEAAT1-3-expressing cells. Comparable IC50 values were found on the three hEAAT subtypes. (-)-HIP-A maintained the remarkable property, previously reported with the racemates, of inhibiting synaptosomal glutamate-induced [3H]D- aspartate release (reverse transport) at concentrations significantly lower than those inhibiting [3H]L-glutamate uptake. New data suggest that the noncompetitive-like interaction described previously is probably the consequence of an insurmountable, long-lasting impairment of EAAT's function. Some minutes of preincubation are required to induce this impairment, the duration of preincubation having more effect on inhibition of glutamate-induced release than of glutamate uptake. In organotypic rat hippocampal slices and mixed mouse brain cortical cultures, TBOA, but not (-)-HIP-A, had toxic effects. Under ischemic conditions, a neuroprotective effect was found with 10 to 30 μM (-)-HIP-A, but not with 10 to 30 μM TBOA or 100 μM (-)-HIP-A. The effect of (-)-HIP-A suggests that, under ischemia, EAATs mediate both release (reverse transport) and uptake of glutamate. The neuroprotection with the lower (-)-HIP-A concentrations may indicate a selective inhibition of the reverse transport confirming the data obtained in synaptosomes. The selective interference with glutamate-induced glutamate release might offer a new strategy for neuroprotective action.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|Publication status||Published - Aug 2008|
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