A recent consensus update classifies dystonia according to two main axes describing the motor features and the different etiologies. Dystonia with no other neurological signs is called õisolated,ö whereas dystonia associated with other neurological signs is called õcombined.ö Since its first description by Oppenheim, dystonia has been considered a pure motor disorder, but recently non–motor features have been recognized as part of clinical phenotype. In isolated dystonias psychiatric disturbances including depression, anxiety disorders, and obsessive–compulsive disorder have been frequently reported. Also cognitive deficits, mainly of executive and visuospatial domains, have been observed, but no major cognitive impairment or dementia was reported. In combined dystonias, psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions are described, with differences among specific syndromes. The topic of neuropsychiatric features in dystonia is evolving and further studies are needed to elucidate the observed phenomenological diversities.
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