Objective diagnosis and treatment are important in optimizing clinical outcomes in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and anticoagulants are the mainstay of treatment. Traditionally, anticoagulant therapy involves parenteral anticoagulants, overlapping with and followed by oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), including the Factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate, have been developed to address limitations associated with traditional anticoagulant therapy. DOACs have recently been approved for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Successful phase III trials have demonstrated their efficacy for the treatment of DVT and PE, with a potentially improved safety profile. Recent evidence suggests that women bleed more compared to men when treated with DOACs for VTE without differences in treatment efficacy. Future clinical trials should include outcomes stratified by sex, and should investigate the clinical impact of this sex-related safety difference.
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)
- Pulmonary embolism (PE)
- Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
ASJC Scopus subject areas