Several risk factors are known to promote atherosclerosis, and a number of biomarkers have been shown to identify patients at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Atherogenesis begins as a qualitative change to intact endothelial cells: when the endothelial cells are subjected to oxidative stress, hemodynamic forces, or biochemical stimuli and inflammatory factors, they allow the entry and retention of monocytes and cholesterol-containing LDL particles. One of the major subsets of mediators in the interaction between inflammatory cells and endothelial and smooth muscle cells and the subsequent perpetuation of the inflammatory reaction are cytokines, especially the interleukins, and macrophage-associated cytokines like tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and interferon (IFN)-y. Advances in understanding of the pathobioIogy of atherosclerosis have implicated inflammation as a central contributor to its initiation and progression.C-reactive protein (CRP) is the best studied of the inflammatory biomarkers in CAD and increasing evidence suggests the localization of CRP in the atherosclerotic plaque and its involvement in inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. An interesting novel biomarkers that has been extensively studied recently is soluble RAGE: its serum levels correlate positively with occurrence and severity of CAD, underlining their central role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In recent years, many genes have been extensively explored, strong evidence of a molecular genetic association with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial. In particular, in genome-wide study many loci were found to be associated with CAD. Finally, the most recent evidencesshows that miRNAs in a stable form can be detected in serum and in plasma and that they may be useful as biomarkers for CAD. However, the influence of endothelial activation and atherosclerotic disease, and that of current vasculoprotective therapy, on levels of circulating miRNAs is still unknown.The aim of the present review was to systematically report current evidence on the promising new biomarkers recently found to be associated with coronary artery disease and to evaluate their possible role in risk assessment. Drugs that inhibit inflammatory pathways are the subject of current research, but successful adoption of immunosuppressive drugs, means finding safe and effective compounds capable of directly suppressing plaque inflammation.
|Title of host publication||New Developments in Myocardial Ischemia Research|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||18|
|ISBN (Print)||9781634828550, 9781634828024|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2015|
- Coronary artery disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas