New insights into cortico-basal-cerebellar connectome clinical and physiological considerations

Angelo Quartarone, Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Giuseppe Anastasi, John Rothwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current model of the basal ganglia system based on the 'direct', 'indirect' and 'hyperdirect' pathways provides striking predictions about basal ganglia function that have been used to develop deep brain stimulation approaches for Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this review is to challenge this scheme in light of new tract tracing information that has recently become available from the human brain using MRI-based tractography, thus providing a novel perspective on the basal ganglia system. We also explore the implications of additional direct pathways running from cortex to basal ganglia and between basal ganglia and cerebellum in the pathophysiology of movement disorders.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBrain : a journal of neurology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Oct 19 2019


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