New mechanisms for old drugs: Insights into DNA-unrelated effects of platinum compounds and drug resistance determinants

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Abstract

Platinum drugs have been widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors. Although DNA has been recognized as the primary cellular target for these agents, there are unresolved issues concerning their effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor efficacy. These cytotoxic agents interact with sub-cellular compartments other than the nucleus. Here, we review how such emerging phenomena contribute to the pharmacologic activity as well as to drug resistance phenotypes. DNA-unrelated effects of platinum drugs involve alterations at the plasma membrane and in endo-lysosomal compartments. A direct interaction with the mitochondria also appears to be implicated in drug-induced cell death. Moreover, the pioneering work of a few groups has shown that platinum drugs can act on the tumor microenvironment as well, and potentiate antitumor activity of the immune system. These poorly understood aspects of platinum drug activity sites may be harnessed to enhance their antitumor efficacy. A complete understanding of DNA-unrelated effects of platinum compounds might reveal new aspects of drug resistance allowing the implementation of the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of platinum compound-based regimens and minimization of their toxic side effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalDrug Resistance Updates
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 11 2015

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Platinum Compounds
Drug Resistance
Platinum
DNA
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Tumor Microenvironment
Poisons
Cytotoxins
Immune System
Mitochondria
Cell Death
Cell Membrane
Phenotype
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Cell death
  • Drug resistance
  • Lysosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Platinum compounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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abstract = "Platinum drugs have been widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors. Although DNA has been recognized as the primary cellular target for these agents, there are unresolved issues concerning their effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor efficacy. These cytotoxic agents interact with sub-cellular compartments other than the nucleus. Here, we review how such emerging phenomena contribute to the pharmacologic activity as well as to drug resistance phenotypes. DNA-unrelated effects of platinum drugs involve alterations at the plasma membrane and in endo-lysosomal compartments. A direct interaction with the mitochondria also appears to be implicated in drug-induced cell death. Moreover, the pioneering work of a few groups has shown that platinum drugs can act on the tumor microenvironment as well, and potentiate antitumor activity of the immune system. These poorly understood aspects of platinum drug activity sites may be harnessed to enhance their antitumor efficacy. A complete understanding of DNA-unrelated effects of platinum compounds might reveal new aspects of drug resistance allowing the implementation of the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of platinum compound-based regimens and minimization of their toxic side effects.",
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AU - Gatti, Laura

AU - Cassinelli, Giuliana

AU - Zaffaroni, Nadia

AU - Lanzi, Cinzia

AU - Perego, Paola

PY - 2015/6/11

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N2 - Platinum drugs have been widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors. Although DNA has been recognized as the primary cellular target for these agents, there are unresolved issues concerning their effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor efficacy. These cytotoxic agents interact with sub-cellular compartments other than the nucleus. Here, we review how such emerging phenomena contribute to the pharmacologic activity as well as to drug resistance phenotypes. DNA-unrelated effects of platinum drugs involve alterations at the plasma membrane and in endo-lysosomal compartments. A direct interaction with the mitochondria also appears to be implicated in drug-induced cell death. Moreover, the pioneering work of a few groups has shown that platinum drugs can act on the tumor microenvironment as well, and potentiate antitumor activity of the immune system. These poorly understood aspects of platinum drug activity sites may be harnessed to enhance their antitumor efficacy. A complete understanding of DNA-unrelated effects of platinum compounds might reveal new aspects of drug resistance allowing the implementation of the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of platinum compound-based regimens and minimization of their toxic side effects.

AB - Platinum drugs have been widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors. Although DNA has been recognized as the primary cellular target for these agents, there are unresolved issues concerning their effects and the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor efficacy. These cytotoxic agents interact with sub-cellular compartments other than the nucleus. Here, we review how such emerging phenomena contribute to the pharmacologic activity as well as to drug resistance phenotypes. DNA-unrelated effects of platinum drugs involve alterations at the plasma membrane and in endo-lysosomal compartments. A direct interaction with the mitochondria also appears to be implicated in drug-induced cell death. Moreover, the pioneering work of a few groups has shown that platinum drugs can act on the tumor microenvironment as well, and potentiate antitumor activity of the immune system. These poorly understood aspects of platinum drug activity sites may be harnessed to enhance their antitumor efficacy. A complete understanding of DNA-unrelated effects of platinum compounds might reveal new aspects of drug resistance allowing the implementation of the antitumor therapeutic efficacy of platinum compound-based regimens and minimization of their toxic side effects.

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