New methods and techniques for sensing the wave aberrations of human eyes

Marco Lombardo, Giuseppe Lombardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


During the past decade, there has been a remarkable expansion of the application of wavefront-related technologies to the human eye. The ability to measure the wavefront aberrations (WA) of an individual eye has greatly improved our understanding on the optical properties of the human eye. The development of wavefront sensors has further generated an intensive effort to revise methods to correct vision. Wavefront sensors have offered the promise of a new generation of visual correction methods that can correct high order aberrations beyond defocus and astigmatism, that is, the wavefront-guided excimer laser platforms and adaptive optics, thus improving visual performance or fundus imaging at unprecedented spatial resolution. On the other hand, current wavefront technologies suffer from some inaccuracies that may limit a wider expansion in the clinical environment. Several innovative approaches have been developed to overcome the limits of standard wavefront sensing techniques. Curvature sensing, pyramid sensing and interferometry currently represent the most reliable methods to revise and improve the measurement and reconstruction of the WA of human eyes. This review describes advantages and disadvantages of current wavefront sensing technologies and provides recent knowledge on innovative methods for sensing the WA of human eyes. In the near future, we expect to benefit from these new wavefront sensor elements, including their application in the personalised correction of optical aberrations and adaptive optics imaging of the eye.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)176-186
Number of pages11
JournalClinical and Experimental Optometry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • Curvature sensor
  • Dynamic range
  • Pyramid sensor
  • Shack-Hartmann sensor
  • Shearing interferometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry
  • Medicine(all)

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