Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Several feeding practices, such as type of feeding (human milk versus formula feeding), timing of enteral feeding initiation and flux of enteral feeding have been investigated so far in order to prevent NEC. However, currently well-established and shared clinical nutritional practices are not available in preventing NEC. Nutritional and surgical treatments of NEC are instead well defined. In selected cases surgery is a therapeutic option of NEC, requiring sometimes partial intestinal resection responsible for short bowel syndrome. In this paper we will investigate the available options for treating NEC according to the Walsh and Kliegman classification, focusing on feeding practices in managing short bowel syndrome that can complicate NEC. We will also analyze the proposed ways of preventing NEC.