Next-generation multimodality of nutrigenomic cancer therapy: Sulforaphane in combination with acetazolamide actively target bronchial carcinoid cancer in disabling the PI3K/Akt/mTOR survival pathway and inducing apoptosis

Reza Bayat Mokhtari, Bessi Qorri, Narges Baluch, Angelo Sparaneo, Federico Pio Fabrizio, Lucia Anna Muscarella, Albina Tyker, Sushil Kumar, Hai Ling Margaret Cheng, Myron R. Szewczuk, Bikul Das, Herman Yeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Aberrations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR survival pathway in many cancers are the most common genomic abnormalities. The phytochemical and bioactive agent sulforaphane (SFN) has nutrigenomic potential in activating the expression of several cellular protective genes via the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 is primarily related to mechanisms of endogenous cellular defense and survival. The efficacy of SFN in combination with acetazolamide (AZ) was investigated in reducing typical H727 and atypical H720 BC survival, migration potential, and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo preclinical xenograft tissues. Materials and Methods: Microscopic imaging, immunocytochemistry, wound healing assay, caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 (M30, CCK18) CytoDeath ELISA assay, immunofluorescence labeling assays for apoptosis, hypoxia, Western Blotting, Tunnel assay, measurement of 5-HT secretion by carbon fiber amperometry assay, quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP), morphologic changes, cell viability, apoptosis activity and the expression levels of phospho-Akt1, Akt1, HIF-1α, PI3K, p21, CAIX, 5-HT, phospho-mTOR, and mTOR in xenografts derived from typical H727 and atypical H720 BC cell lines. Results: Combining AZ+SFN reduced tumor cell survival compared to each agent alone, both in vitro and in vivo xenograft tissues. AZ+SFN targeted multiple pathways involved in cell cycle, serotonin secretion, survival, and growth pathways, highlighting its therapeutic approach. Both H727 and H720 cells were associated with induction of apoptosis, upregulation of the p21 cell cycle inhibitor, and downregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, suggesting that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is a primary target of the AZ+SFN combination therapy. Conclusions: Combining SFN+AZ significantly inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly reducing 5-HT secretion in carcinoid syndrome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1470-1489
Number of pages20
JournalOncotarget
Volume12
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 20 2021

Keywords

  • Acetazolamide
  • Bronchial carcinoid tumors
  • Carbonic anhydrase
  • Serotonin
  • Sulforaphane

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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