Nitric oxide donors increase PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression in multiple myeloma cells: Role of DNA damage response activation

Cinzia Fionda, Maria Pia Abruzzese, Alessandra Zingoni, Alessandra Soriani, Biancamaria Ricci, Rosa Molfetta, Rossella Paolini, Angela Santoni, Marco Cippitelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor constitutively expressed by macrophages/dendritic cells and by T lymphocytes and Natural Killer (NK) cells, having an important role in anticancer responses; in this regard, combination therapies able to enhance the expression of DNAM-1 ligands on tumor cells are of therapeutic interest. In this study, we investigated the effect of different nitric oxide (NO) donors on the expression of the DNAM-1 ligand Poliovirus Receptor/CD155 (PVR/CD155) in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Methods: Six MM cell lines, SKO-007(J3), U266, OPM-2, RPMI-8226, ARK and LP1 were used to investigate the activity of different nitric oxide donors [DETA-NO and the NO-releasing prodrugs NCX4040 (NO-aspirin) and JS-K] on the expression of PVR/CD155, using Flow Cytometry and Real-Time PCR. Western-blot and specific inhibitors were employed to investigate the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP and activation of the DNA damage response (DDR). Results: Our results indicate that increased levels of nitric oxide can upregulate PVR/CD155 cell surface and mRNA expression in MM cells; in addition, exposure to nitric oxide donors renders myeloma cells more efficient to activate NK cell degranulation and enhances their ability to trigger NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase and increased cGMP concentrations by nitric oxide is not involved in the up-regulation of ligand expression. On the contrary, treatment of MM cells with nitric oxide donors correlated with the activation of a DNA damage response pathway and inhibition of the ATM /ATR/Chk1/2 kinase activities by specific inhibitors significantly abrogates up-regulation. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that regulation of the PVR/CD155 DNAM-1 ligand expression by nitric oxide may represent an additional immune-mediated mechanism and supports the anti-myeloma activity of nitric oxide donors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalBMC Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 22 2015


  • Chemoimmunotherapy
  • DNA damage response
  • DNAM-1
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Natural killer
  • Nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Genetics


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