No breakfast at home: Association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in childhood

S. Papoutsou, G. Briassoulis, M. Wolters, J. Peplies, L. Iacoviello, G. Eiben, T. Veidebaum, D. Molnar, P. Russo, N. Michels, L. A. Moreno, M. Tornaritis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background/Objectives: Limited data exist regarding breakfast consumption and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between breakfast routine and CVD risk factors in a multinational sample. Subjects/Methods: Cross-sectional data from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) survey (2007-2008) were used. The sample included children 2 to <10 years of age (n = 8863, 51.2% boys). The Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were used to assess CVD risk factors among no breakfast (NBrH), occasional breakfast and daily breakfast at home (DBrH) consumption. Results: Male school-aged NBrH consumers, compared with DBrH consumers, were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.79), to have higher risk for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.69, 95% CI = 1.24-2.30), triglycerides (TG) above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24-2.19) and sum of skinfolds greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.32, 95% CI = 1.0-1.76). Female school-aged NBrH consumers compared with DBrH consumers had a higher risk for waist circumference greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14-2.51), HDL cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.23-2.21), TG above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.17) and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio > 3.5 (OR: 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09-1.77). Results remained significant after adjusting for daily physical activity in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) periods (in min/day). Male DBrH consumers, 6 to <10 years of age, had longer daily periods of MVPA compared with NBrH consumers (32.0 ± 21.4 vs 27.5 ± 18.8, P <0.05). For preschoolers, breakfast consumption was negatively associated with CVD risk factors but results of regression models were mostly insignificant. Conclusions: Daily breakfast consumption contributes to controlling school-aged children's weight and lipid profile and promotes higher PA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)829-834
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine(all)


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