Nomenclature and diagnosis of gluten-related disorders: A position statement by the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO)

L. Elli, D. Villalta, L. Roncoroni, D. Barisani, S. Ferrero, N. Pellegrini, M.T. Bardella, F. Valiante, C. Tomba, A. Carroccio, M. Bellini, M. Soncini, R. Cannizzaro, G. Leandro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background “Gluten-related disorders” is a term that encompasses different diseases induced by the ingestion of gluten-containing food. Because of their incidence the scientific community has been intensively studying them. Aim To support gastroenterologists with a correct nomenclature and diagnostic approach to gluten-related disorders in adulthood. Methods The Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO) commissioned a panel of experts to prepare a position statement clarifying the nomenclature and diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, focusing on those of gastroenterological interest. Each member was assigned a task and levels of evidence/recommendation have been proposed. Results The panel identified celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity as the gluten-related disorders of gastroenterological interest. Celiac disease has an autoimmune nature, wheat allergy is IgE-mediated while the pathogenesis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still unknown as is the case of non-IgE mediated allergy. Diagnosis should start with the serological screening for celiac disease and wheat allergy. In case of normal values, the response to a gluten-free diet should be evaluated and a confirmatory blind food challenge carried out. Conclusions Gluten-related disorders are clinically heterogeneous. Patients should be carefully managed and specific protocols applied for a correct differential diagnosis in gastroenterological setting. © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-146
Number of pages9
JournalDigestive and Liver Disease
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Celiac disease
  • Food allergy
  • Gluten-related disorders
  • Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
  • Wheat allergy
  • gluten
  • immunoglobulin E
  • adult
  • adulthood
  • celiac disease
  • controlled study
  • dietitian
  • endoscopist
  • environmental factor
  • food allergy
  • gastroenterologist
  • genetics
  • gluten free diet
  • gluten related disorder
  • HLA typing
  • human
  • Medical Subject Headings
  • Medline
  • nutritional disorder
  • pathogenesis
  • practice guideline
  • priority journal
  • Review
  • wheat allergy
  • differential diagnosis
  • gastroenterology
  • hospital
  • Italy
  • medical society
  • risk factor
  • Wheat Hypersensitivity
  • Celiac Disease
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Gastroenterology
  • Glutens
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Societies, Medical


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