Definitions and epidemiology The definition non-accidental brain injury (NABI; also called inflicted traumatic brain injury [inflicted TBI] or abusive head trauma and shaken baby syndrome [SBS]) is used to describe the traumatic brain injury inflicted on an infant or young child (Case2007; Minns et al. 2008). Non-accidental brain injury results from any external force that is severe enough to cause damage to the brain and represents a major cause of acquired brain injury in the pediatric population (Hawley et al. 2003; Bourgeois et al. 2008). In a population-based study in Scotland (Barlow and Minns 2000) SBS had an annual incidence of 24.6 per 100000 children younger than age 1 year. The risk of a child suffering NABI by age 1 year was 1 in 4065 and injuries occurred almost exclusively in young infants (median age 2.2 months). Under age 2 years, 10% of all injuries of children are abusive. Between 40% and 50% of all abusive injuries are head injuries and about 80% of deaths related to head injuries are abusive (Case 2007). There is equal gender distribution with slight male predominance (Starling et al. 1995; Barlow and Minns 2000). According to Kinney and Armstrong (1997), in the USA, NABI was second only to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a cause of postneonatal death in infants under 12 months old, and according to Bechtel et al. (2004) NABI is the most common cause of traumatic death in the same age range.
|Title of host publication||The Causes of Epilepsy: Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||8|
|ISBN (Print)||9780511921001, 9780521114479|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2011|
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