Ventilation is one of the most expensive therapies in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (ICUs)  and a considerable morbidity is associated with its use. The cost of the treatment of preterm neonates, infants and children with respiratory failure, who require mechanical ventilation, is extremely expensive and increases with the length of stay . Moreover, the financial burden caused from respiratory morbidity for preterm infants who subsequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) should also be noted. This expense largely reflects nursing and respiratory therapist time, which may be much less in different health care systems worldwide.
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