Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis in people living with HIV

Nicola Squillace, Alessandro Soria, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: The burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing worldwide. This phenomenon poses a potentially dangerous risk of rise in mortalities caused by cirrhosis and liver cancer. Owing to a complex combination of factors, NAFLD and NASH arise in a majority of people living with HIV (PLWH), but accurate estimates of prevalence differ, depending on sample selection, type of analysis, and data interpretation. The wide range of diagnostic tools used to assess liver steatosis and lack of control groups in many studies further contributes to current difficulties in properly assessing prevalence of these conditions. Areas covered: Thoroughly scrutinizing the current literature, we compared the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in PLWH to rates found in the general population. We highlighted strengths and limitations of the studies, in order to determine the effective impact of these medical conditions in PLWH. Expert opinion: The prevalence and progression of NAFLD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are reported to be widely variable. HIV infection itself and antiretroviral treatment have been demonstrated to play a role in the development of NAFLD. Larger and more effective studies are needed to evaluate the effects of NASH in PLWH and its progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-650
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 3 2019


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • hepatic steatosis
  • HIV
  • nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  • nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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