Nonhuman primate models for cell-associated simian immunodeficiency virus transmission: the need to better understand the complexity of HIV mucosal transmission

Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin, Céline Gommet, Mariangela Cavarelli, Roger Le Grand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Nonhuman primates are extensively used to assess strategies to prevent infection from sexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to study mechanisms of mucosal transmission. However, although semen represents one of the most important vehicles for the virus, the vast majority of preclinical challenge studies have used cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) viral particles inoculated as diluted culture supernatants. Semen is a complex body fluid containing many factors that may facilitate or decrease HIV infectiousness. The virus in semen is present in different forms: as free virus particles or as cell-associated virus (ie, within infected leukocytes). Although cell-to-cell transmission of HIV is highly efficient, the role of cell-associated virus in semen has been surprisingly poorly investigated in nonhuman primate models. Mucosal exposure of macaques to cell-associated SIV by using infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells or spleen cells has been shown to be an efficient means of infection; however, it has yet to be shown that SIV- or SHIV-infected seminal leukocytes can transmit infection in vivo. Improvement of animal models to better recapitulate the complex microenvironment at portals of HIV entry is needed for testing candidate antiretrovirals, microbicides, and vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S660-S666
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume210
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 15 2014

Keywords

  • cell-associated virus
  • HIV
  • leukocytes
  • mucosal transmission
  • non-human primate
  • semen
  • SIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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