Noninvasive Evaluation of Flow Reserve in the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Patients With Cardiac Syndrome X

Leonarda Galiuto, Alfonso Sestito, Sabrina Barchetta, Gregory A. Sgueglia, Fabio Infusino, Claudio La Rosa, Gaetano Lanza, Filippo Crea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Data on coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with syndrome X are still controversial. Further, noninvasive evaluation of epicardial and microvascular flow reserves in these patients has never been performed. In 17 patients with syndrome X and in 17 age- and gender-matched control subjects, CFR in the mid left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was evaluated by transthoracic color and pulse-wave Doppler using a 7-mHz probe (Sequoia, Siemens). Peak diastolic LAD flow was calculated at rest and at peak adenosine (140 μg/kg/min intravenously in 90 seconds). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed at rest and during adenosine use by real-time cadence pulse sequencing and intravenous SonoVue (Bracco; 5 ml at 1 ml/min) and microvascular blood volume (A), velocity (β), and flow (A×β) by replenishing curves (y = A[1 - e βt]). CFR was measured by Doppler echocardiography as an adenosine/rest velocity ratio and by MCE as a microvascular volume, velocity, and flow adenosine/rest ratio. Compared with controls, patients with syndrome X demonstrated lower LAD CFR and velocity and flow microvascular flow reserves (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1378-1383
Number of pages6
JournalThe American Journal of Cardiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2007


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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