Reduced exercise tolerance and dyspnea during exercise are hallmarks of heart failure syndrome. Exercise capacity and various parameters of cardiopulmonary response to exercise are of important prognostic value. All the available parameters only indirectly reflect left ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic adaptation to an increased demand. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac output, especially during an incremental exercise stress test, would allow the direct measure of cardiac reserve and may become the gold standard for prognostic evaluation in the future.
- Cardiac output
- Heart failure
- Inert gases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine