Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations, and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation are generally considered to be mutually exclusive. However, concomitant mutations are found in a small number of patients and the effect of these on response to targeted therapy is still unknown. Patients and Methods: We considered 380 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent nonsequential testing for EGFR and EML4-ALK translocation. KRAS mutation analysis was also performed on 282 patients. Results: We found 1.6%, 1.1%, and 2.5% of patients who showed a double mutation comprising EGFR and EML4-ALK, EGFR and KRAS, and EML4-ALK and KRAS, respectively. Twenty-eight patients with EGFR mutation underwent first-line therapy with a tyrosine kinase receptor; a clinical benefit was observed in 81.8% of patients with EGFR mutations only and in 67% of those who also showed an EML4-ALK translocation. Twelve patients with an EML4-ALK translocation received crizotinib and 7 of these had disease progression within 3 months (2 had a concomitant KRAS mutation and 1 had a concomitant EGFR mutation). Two patients showed stable disease, 1 of whom also had a KRAS mutation. Two patients obtained a partial response and 1 had a complete response; all harbored an EML4-ALK translocation only. The median overall survival of patients who carried an EML4-ALK translocation alone or concomitant with a KRAS mutation was 57.1 (range, 10.7-not reached) and 10.7 (range, 4.6-not reached) months, respectively. Conclusion: Concomitant EGFR, EML4-ALK, or KRAS mutations can occur in NSCLC. Concomitant KRAS mutation and EML4-ALK translocation represents the most common double alteration and confers a poor prognosis.
- Double mutations
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine