Normal sonographic anatomy of the wrist with emphasis on assessment of tendons, nerves, and ligaments

Salvatore Gitto, Ferdinando Draghi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Sonography allows for rapid, cost-effective, noninvasive, and dynamic evaluation of soft tissue structures, thus representing a valuable tool for ruling out musculoskeletal disorders of the wrist. Because of the complexity of the wrist joint, sonographic training and familiarity with normal and variant anatomy are needed to avoid misdiagnosis and improper treatment. The aim of this article is to enlighten readers about the structures representing normal findings or common variants during sonographic evaluations of the wrist. The main text reviews the pertinent gross anatomy and procedures that are recommended to assess the soft tissue structures of the wrist, with particular emphasis given to tendons, nerves, and ligaments. Detailed explanations of the scanning techniques and sonographic appearance of the wrist structures are provided in the figure legends.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1081-1094
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016



  • Ligaments
  • Musculoskeletal ultrasound
  • Nerves
  • Sonography
  • Tendons
  • Wrist imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Medicine(all)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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